What are different types of flooding?
Floods commonly occur in river floodplains and coastal areas. The two main types of flood are “fluvial” and “pluvial.” Fluvial floods are caused by rivers and streams. Pluvial floods are caused by precipitation. These flood types can be further categorized by their causes.
River floods happen when river water levels rise. This happens due to higher amounts of precipitation and melting snow.
Coastal floods happen when water levels are higher than high tide and exacerbated by higher levels of precipitation and high winds.
Storm surge occurs when severe storms cause extremely high tides. Severe storms bring with them high winds, strong waves, and a lower atmospheric pressure. Storm surges can lead to extreme flooding of large areas. When hurricanes happen, storm surges cause extensive damage and loss of life and property.
Inland floods are the result of higher than average levels of precipitation which accumulates over a span of several days. Inland floods can also result from the flood control system failure.
Flash floods are caused by very heavy rainfall which accumulates quickly (generally within a few hours). Flash floods can also happen if flood control systems fail.
Types of Flood Damage
Any of these flood types can cause property damage, property loss, crop loss, loss of livestock, loss of human life, and waterborne disease.